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Journal Issue: Children with Disabilities Volume 22 Number 1 Spring 2012

Emerging Technologies and Their Impact on Disability
Paul H. Wise


  1. Neal Halfon and others, "The Changing Landscape of Disability in Childhood," Future of Children 22, no. 1 (2012).
  2. Michael E. Msall, Michelle R. Tremont, and Kenneth J. Ottenbacher, "Functional Assessment of Preschool Children: Optimizing Developmental and Family Supports in Early Intervention," Infants and Young Children 14 (July 2001): 46–66.
  3. Stephen M. Haley and others, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI): Development, Standardization, and Administration Manual (Boston University, 1992); Frank J. Floyd and Erin M. Gallagher, "Parental Stress, Care Demands, and Use of Supportive Services for School-Aged Children with Disabilities and Behavior Problems," Family Relations 46, no. 4 (1997): 359–71.
  4. Bernard Guyer and others, "Early Childhood Health Promotion and Its Life Course Health Consequences," Academic Pediatrics 9 (2009): 142–49.
  5. Marni D. Brownell and others, "Socio-Economic Inequities in Children's Injury Rates: Has the Gradient Changed over Time?" Canadian Journal of Public Health 101, supp. 3 (2010): 528–31.
  6. Michael M. Kaback, "Screening and Prevention in Tay-Sachs Disease: Origins, Update, and Impact," Advances in Genetics 44 (2001): 253–65.
  7. Krista S. Crider, Richard S. Olney, and Janet D. Cragan, "Trisomies 13 and 18: Population Prevalences, Characteristics, and Prenatal Diagnosis, Metropolitican Atlanta, 1994–2003," American Journal of Medical Genetics 146A (2008): 820–26.
  8. Csaba Siffel and others, "Prenatal Diagnosis, Pregnancy Terminations and Prevalence of Down Syndrome in Atlanta," Birth Defects Research 70A (2004): 565–71.
  9. Wylie Burke and others, "Genetic Screening," Epidemiologic Reviews 33 (2011): 148–64.
  10. James P. Evans, David C. Dale, and Cathy Fomous, "Preparing for a Consumer-Driven Genomic Age," New England Journal of Medicine, 363 (2010): 1099–1103.
  11. Christina D. Bethell and others, "A National and State Profile of Leading Health Problems and Health Care Quality for U.S. Children: Key Insurance Disparities and Across-State Variations," Academic Pediatrics 11 (2011): S22–S33.
  12. Kevin C. Heslin and others, "Racial and Ethnic Differences in Unmet Need for Vision Care among Children with Special Health Care Needs," Archives of Ophthalmology 124 (2006): 895–902.
  13. Stacey C. Dusing, Asheley Cockrell Skinner, and Michelle L. Mayer, "Unmet Need for Therapy Services, Assistive Devices, and Related Services: Data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs," Ambulatory Pediatrics 4, no. 5 (2004): 448–54.
  14. Ruth E. Benedict and Anne M. Baumgardner, "A Population Approach to Understanding Children's Access to Assistive Technology," Disability Rehabilitation 31, no. 7 (2009): 582–92.
  15. Michele Bottos and others, "Powered Wheelchairs and Independence in Young Children with Tetraplegia," Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 43, no. 11 (2001): 769–77; Charlene Butler, "Effects of Powered Mobility on Self-Initiated Behaviours of Very Young Children with Locomotor Disability," Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 28, no. 3 (1986): 325–32; Denise Reid, Patty Rigby, and Steve Ryan, "Functional Impact of a Rigid Pelvic Stabilizer on Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Use Wheelchairs: Users' and Caregivers' Perceptions," Pediatric Rehabilitation 3, no. 3 (1999): 101–18; Patricia Rigby and others, "Effects of a Wheelchair-Mounted Rigid Pelvis Stabilizer on Caregiver Assistance for Children with Cerebral Palsy," Assistive Technology 13, no. 1 (2001): 2–11; Lori Roxborough, "Review of the Efficacy and Effectiveness of Adaptive Seating for Children with Cerebral Palsy," Assistive Technology 7, no. 1 (1995): 17–25.
  16. Brian R. Bryant and others, "Assistive Technology and Supports Provision: A Selective Review of the Literature and Proposed Areas of Application," Exceptionality 18, no. 4 (2010): 203–13.
  17. Raija Korpela , Ritva-Liisa Seppänen, and Matti Koivikko, "Technical Aids for Daily Activities: A Regional Survey of 204 Disabled Children," Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 34, no. 11 (1992): 985–98.
  18. World Health Organization, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (
  19. Stacey Henderson, Heather Skelton, and Peter Rosenbaum, "Assistive Devices for Children with Functional Impairments: Impact on Child and Caregiver Function," Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 50, no. 2 (2008): 89–98.
  20. Caren Sax, Douglas Fisher, and Ian Pumpian, "Outcomes for Students with Severe Disabilities: Case Studies on the Use of Assistive Technology in Inclusive Classrooms," Technology & Disability 5 (1996): 327–34; Masaya Kubota, and others, "New Ocular Movement Detector System as a Communication Tool in Ventilator-Assisted Werdnig-Hoffmann Disease," Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 42, no. 1 (2000): 61–64; Margit Betke, James Gips, and Peter Fleming, "The Camera Mouse: Visual Tracking of Body Features to Provide Computer Access for People with Severe Disabilities," IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation 10, no. 1 (2002): 1–10; Mark V. Durand, "Functional Communication Training Using Assistive Devices: Effects on Challenging Behavior and Affect," Augmentive Alternative Communication 9, no. 3 (1993): 168–76; Patricia Hutinger, "Assistive Technology Applications in Educational Programs of Children with Multiple Disabilities: A Case Study Report on the State of the Practice," Journal of Special Education Technology 13, no. 1 (1996): 16–35; Tina T. Dyches, "Effects of Switch Training on the Communication of Children with Autism and Severe Disabilities," Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities 13, no. 3 (1998): 151–62; M.L.B. Ko, Helen McConachie, and Nicola Jolleff, "Outcome of Recommendations for Augmentative Communication in Children," Child: Care, Health, and Development 24 (May 1998): 195–205; Charles A. MacArthur, "Word Processing with Speech Synthesis and Word Prediction: Effects on the Dialogue Journal Writing of Students with Learning Disabilities," Learning Disability Quarterly 24 (Spring 1998): 151–66; Cynthia F. Dicarlo and Meher Banajee, "Using Voice Output Devices to Increase Initiations of Young Children with Disabilities," Journal of Early Intervention 23, no. 3 (2000): 191–99; Cynthia Tam and others, "Perceived Benefits of Word Prediction Intervention on Written Productivity in Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus," Occupational Therapy International 9, no. 3 (2002): 237–55; Anna-Liisa Salminen, Helen Petrie, and Susan Ryan, "Impact of Computer Augmented Communication on the Daily Lives of Speech-Impaired Children. Part I: Daily Communication and Activities," Technology and Disability 16, no. 3 (2004): 157–67.
  21. Charlene Butler, Gary A. Okamoto, and Tammy M. McKay, "Powered Mobility for Very Young Children," Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 35 (August 1983): 472–74; Butler, "Effects of Powered Mobility on Self-Initiated Behaviours of Very Young Children with Locomotor Disability" (see note 15); Jo Douglas and Martina Ryan, "A Preschool Severely Disabled Boy and His Powered Wheelchair: A Case Study," Child: Care, Health and Development 13 (September 1987): 303–09; Bottos and others, "Powered Wheelchairs and Independence in Young Children with Tetraplegia" (see note 15); Wayne Stuberg, "Home Accessibility and Adaptive Equipment in Duchene Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report," Pediatric Physical Therapy 13 (Winter 2001): 169–74; Jean Deitz, Yvonne Swinth, and Owen White, "Powered Mobility and Preschoolers with Complex Developmental Delays," American Journal of Occupational Therapy 56, no. 1 (2002): 86–96; Maria A. Jones, Irene R. McEwen, and Laura Hansen, "Use of Power Mobility for a Young Child with Spinal Muscular Atrophy," Physical Therapy 83, no. 3 (2003): 253–62; Lesley Wiart and others, "Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Use of Powered Mobility," Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics 24, no. 4 (2004): 3–21.
  22. Jérôme Fauconnier and others, "Participation in Life Situations of 8–12 Year Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: Cross Sectional European Study," British Medical Journal 338 (2009): 1458–70.
  23. Kay Tisdale, National Contextual Factors Affecting the Lives of Disabled Children in Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, and UK, vols. 1 and 2 (Newcastle University, 2006) (; (
  24. Ibid.
  25. Deanne Wilson-Costello and others, "Improved Survival Rates with Increased Neurodevelopmental Disability for Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the 1990s," Pediatrics 115 (2005): 997–1003.
  26. Saroj Saigal and Lex W. Doyle, "An Overview of Mortality and Sequelae of Preterm Birth from Infancy to Adulthood," Lancet 371 (2008): 261–69.
  27. Mary Jane Platt and others, "Trends in Cerebral Palsy among Infants of Very Low Birthweight or Born Prematurely in 16 European Centres: A Database Study," Lancet 369 (2007): 43–50.
  28. Marleen M.H.J. van Gelder and others, "Teratogenic Mechanisms of Medical Drugs," Human Reproduction Update 16 (2010): 378–94.
  29. Victoria Clay Wright and others, "Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance—United States, 2005," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57 (2008): 1–23.
  30. Heidi J. Larson and others, "Addressing the Vaccine Confidence Gap," Lancet 378 (2011): 526–35.
  31. L. Ebony Boulware and others, "Race and Trust in the Health Care System," Public Health Reports 118 (2003): 358–65.
  32. Paul H. Wise, "The Rebirth of Pediatrics," Pediatrics 123 (2009): 413–16.
  33. Calvin Sia and others, "History of the Medical Home Concept," Pediatrics 113, no. 4 (2004): 1473–78; Paul H. Wise, Lynne C. Huffman, and Gabriel Brat, "A Critical Analysis of Care Coordination Strategies for Children with Special Health Care Needs," Technical Review 14 (Rockville, Md.: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2007).
  34. American Academy of Pediatrics, "The Medical Home," Pediatrics 113 (2004): 1545–47; American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Children with Disabilities, "Care Coordination in the Medical Home: Integrating Health and Related Systems of Care for Children with Special Health Needs," Pediatrics 116 (2005): 1238–44.
  35. Bonnie Strickland and others, "Access to the Medical Home: Results of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs," Pediatrics 113 (2004): 1485–92; Vidya B. Gupta, Karen G. O'Connor, and Carlos Quezada-Gomez, "Care Coordination Services in Pediatric Practices," Pediatrics 113 (2004): 1517–21; Beverly A. Mulvihill and others, "Does Access to a Medical Home Differ According to Child and Family Characteristics, Including Special-Health-Care-Needs Status, among Children in Alabama?" Pediatrics 119 (2007): S107–13; Sara L. Toomey, Charles J. Homer, and Jonathan A. Finkelstein, "Comparing Medical Homes for Children with ADHD and Asthma," Academic Pediatrics 10, no. 1 (2010): 56–63; Gopal K. Singh and others, "Geographic Disparities in Access to the Medical Home among U.S. CSHCN," Pediatrics 124, no. 4 (2009): s352-s360.
  36. Bethell and others, "A National and State Profile of Leading Health Problems and Health Care Quality for U.S. Children" (see note 11).
  37. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Children with Disabilities, "Provision of Related Services for Children with Chronic Disabilities," Pediatrics 92 (1993): 879–81; American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Children with Disabilities, "The Pediatrician's Role in Development and Implementation of an Individual Education Plan (IEP) and/or an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)," Pediatrics 104 (1999): 124–27; American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Children with Disabilities, "Provision of Educationally-Related Services for Children and Adolescents with Chronic Diseases and Disabling Conditions," Pediatrics 105 (2000): 448–51; American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Children with Disabilities, "Role of the Pediatrician in Family-Centered Early Intervention Services," Pediatrics 107 (2001): 1155–57.
  38. Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest, "Disability and the Education System," Future of Children 22, no. 1 (2012).
  39. American Academy of Pediatrics, "The Medical Home" (see note 34); American Academy of Pediatrics, Council on Children with Disabilities, "Care Coordination in the Medical Home" (see note 34).
  40. Paul W. Newacheck and others, "The Future of Health Insurance for Children with Special Health Care Needs," Pediatrics 123 (May 2009): e940–47.
  41. Wise, "The Rebirth of Pediatrics" (see note 32); Denis K. Kuo and others, "Individual and Practice Characteristics Associated with Physician Provision of Recommended Care for Children with Special Health Care Needs," Clinical Pediatrics 50, no. 8 (2011): 704–11.
  42. Mary Ellen Rimsza and others, "Changes in Pediatric Subspecialty Referral Preferences and Satisfaction with Subspecialty Care: 1997–2007" (; Beth A. Pletcher and others, "Primary Care Pediatricians' Satisfaction with Subspecialty Care, Perceived Supply, and Barriers to Care," Journal of Pediatrics 165 (June 2010): 1011–15.
  43. Raphael C. Sneed, Warren L. May, and Christine S. Stencel, "Training of Pediatricians in Care of Physical Disabilities in Children with Special Health Needs: Results of a Two-State Survey of Practicing Pediatricians and National Resident Training Programs," Pediatrics 105 (2000): 554–61; Raphael C. Sneed, Warren L. May, and Christine Stencel, "Physicians' Reliance on Specialists, Therapists, and Vendors When Prescribing Therapies and Durable Medical Equipment for Children with Special Health Care Needs," Pediatrics 107 (June 2001): 1283–90; Raphael C. Sneed and others, "Pediatric Physiatry in 2000: A Survey of Practitioners and Training Programs," Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 83 (March 2002): 416–22.
  44. Raphael C. Sneed, Warren L. May, and Christine Stencel, "Policy Versus Practice: Comparison of Prescribing Therapy and Durable Medical Equipment in Medical and Educational Settings," Pediatrics 114 (2004): e612–25.
  45. Peter G. Szilagyi, "Health Insurance and Children with Disabilities," Future of Children 22, no. 1 (2012).
  46. Wise, "The Rebirth of Pediatrics" (see note 32).
  47. Michael Marmot and others, "Closing the Gap in Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health," Lancet 372, no. 9650 (2008): 1661–69; Public Broadcast System, "Unnatural Causes: Is Inequality Making Us Sick?" (
  48. John M. Eyler, Victorian Social Medicine: Ideas and Methods of William Farr (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979); L. R. Billerme, Memoire sur la mortalité en France dans la classe aisee et dans la classe indigente (Paris: Mémoires de l'Académie royale de Médecine, 1828), p. 97; R. Virchow, On Mortality in Berlin (Berlin: Berliner Klinishe Wochenschrift, 1872), p. 51.
  49. M. W. Flinn, ed., Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Laboring Population of Great Britain (Edinburgh University Press, 1965), pp. 93–95; William Farr, "Mortality of Children in the Principal States of Europe," Journal of the Statistical Society of London 29 (1866): 15–18.
  50. Eyler, Victorian Social Medicine (see note 48).
  51. Friedrich Engels, The Conditions of the Working-Class in England (Moscow: Progress, 1973), pp. 146–49.
  52. Virchow, On Mortality in Berlin (see note 48).
  53. Robert Horton, "UNICEF Leadership 2005–2015: A Call for Strategic Change," Lancet 364 (2004): 2071–74.
  54. Richard A. Meckel, Save the Babies (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990).
  55. Robyn Muncy, Creating a Female Dominion in American Reform, 1890–1935 (Oxford University Press, 1991).
  56. Paul H. Wise, "Poverty, Technology and Recent Trends in the United States Infant Mortality Rate," Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 4, no. 4 (1990): 390–401; Paul H. Wise, "Confronting Racial Disparities in Infant Mortality: Reconciling Science and Politics," American Journal of Preventative Medicine 9, no. 6 (1993): 7–16.
  57. Bruce G. Link and Jo Phelan, "Social Conditions as Fundamental Causes of Diseases," Journal of Health and Social Behavior 35 (1995): 80–94.
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  59. Virginia W. Chang and Diane S. Lauderdale, "Fundamental Cause Theory, Technologic Innovation and Health Disparities: The Case of Cholesterol in the Era of Statins," Journal of Health and Social Behavior 50, no. 3 (2009): 245–60.
  60. Everett M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1962).
  61. Aaron Caughey and others, "Assessment of Demand for Prenatal Diagnostic Testing Using Willingness to Pay," Obstetrics & Gynecology 103 (March 2004): 539–45; Miriam Kupperman, Elena Gates, and Eugene Washington, "Racial-Ethnic Differences in Prenatal Diagnostic Test Use and Outcomes: Preferences, Socioeconomics, or Patient Knowledge?" Obstetrics & Gynecology no. 5 (1996): 675–82.
  62. National Council on Disability, "Study on the Financing of Assistive Technology Devices and Services for Individuals with Disabilities: A Report to the President and Congress of the United States" (1993) (
  63. Peter C. Hunt, Michael L. Boninger, and Rory A. Cooper, "Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Disparity in Wheelchair Customizability among People with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury," Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 85 (2004): 1859–64.
  64. Molly F. Story, "Principles of Universal Design," in Universal Design Handbook, edited by Wolfgang Preiser and Elaine Ostroff (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001).
  65. J. Habermas, "A Postscript to Knowledge and Human Interests," in Philosophy of the Social Sciences (Boston: Beacon Press, 1972); Abir Mullick and Ed Steinfeld, "Universal Design: What It Is and What It Isn't," Innovation 16 (1997): 14–24.
  66. Katherine D. Seelman, "Universal Design and Orphan Technology: Do We Need Both?" Disability Studies Quarterly 25 (2005) (
  67. Debabrata Talukdar and Dinesh K. Gauri, "Home Internet Access and Usage in the USA: Trends in the Socio-Economic Digital Divide," Communications of the Association for Information Systems 28 (2011) (
  68. Margaret A. Hamburg and Francis S. Collins, "The Path to Personalized Medicine," New England Journal of Medicine 363 (2010): 301–04.