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Journal Issue: Children and Divorce Volume 4 Number 1 Spring/Summer 1994

CHILD INDICATORS: Immunization of Young Children
Eugene M. Lewit John Mullahy


  1. Hinman, A.R. Public health considerations. In Vaccines. S.A. Plotkin and E.A. Mortimer, Jr., eds. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company, 1988, pp. 587–611.
  2. Peter, G. Childhood immunizations. New England Journal of Medicine (December 17, 1992) 327:1794–800. Vaccines for a number of other diseases, such as tuberculosis (BCG vaccine) and varicella (chicken pox), have been developed but are not recommended for general use in the United States.
  3. Although smallpox was eradicated by the late 1970s, attempts to eradicate measles and rubella from the United States have not been successful.
  4. American Academy of Pediatrics. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 21st ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: AAP, 1991.
  5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Comprehensive Childhood Immunization Initiative: Strategy and Implementation. Atlanta, GA: DHHS, 1993.
  6. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine: Recommendations for immunization with recently and previously licensed vaccines. Pediatrics (September 1993) 92:480-88.
  7. Cutts, F.T., Zell, E.R., Mason, D., et al. Monitoring progress toward U.S. preschool immunization goals. Journal of the American Medical Association (April 8, 1992) 267:1952–55.
  8. For statistical purposes, two-year-olds are children aged 19 to 35 months.
  9. National Center for Health Statistics. Health United States 1992 and Healthy People 2000 Review. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service, 1993.
  10. Calculations by the authors from 1991 NHIS public use tapes.
  11. Nearly complete immunization coverage of children at school entry is desirable but should not lead to complacency. The large gap between the immunization coverage of two-year-olds and school-age children suggests that many young children remain inappropriately at risk for potentially serious diseases for several years.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vaccination coverage of two-year-old children—United States, 1991–1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (January 7, 1994) 42:985–88.
  13. Three years after an epidemic, measles is called defeated. New York Times. October 29, 1993, at A8.
  14. Jost, K. The CQ Researcher: Childhood immunizations. Congressional Quarterly Inc. in conjuction with EBSCO Publishing (June 18, 1993) 3:531–51.
  15. Ad hoc working group for the development of standards for pediatric immunization practices. Standards for pediatric immunization practices. Journal of the American Medical Association (April 14, 1993) 269:1817–22.
  16. Brody, J.E. Personal health: Complacent parents put their children at risk by failing to obtain recommended vaccinations. New York Times. August 11, 1993, at B7.