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Journal Issue: Children and Divorce Volume 4 Number 1 Spring/Summer 1994

High-Conflict Divorce
Janet R. Johnston


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  2. Ahrons, C.R., and Rogers, R.H. Divorced families: A multidisciplinary developmental view. New York: W.W. Norton, 1987.
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  4. Ash, P., and Guyer, M.J. Child psychiatry and the law: The functions of psychiatric evaluation in contested custody and visitation cases. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry (1986) 25:554–61. Ash, P., and Guyer, M.J. Relitigation after contested custody and visitation evaluations. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (1986) 14:323–30.
  5. This focus leaves untouched the serious social policy question of the relationship between disputes over child support and those over custody and access to children, a question that is presently under research in a multisite national study (J. Pearson, Center for Policy Research, 1720 Emerson St., Denver, CO 90218).
  6. Furstenberg, Jr., F.F., and Nord, C.W. Parenting apart: Patterns in childrearing after marital disruption. Journal of Marriage and the Family (1985) 47:893–904.
  7. Maccoby, E.E., and Mnookin, R.H. Dividing the child: Social and legal dilemmas of custody. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.
  8. Wallerstein, J.S., and Kelly, J.B. Surviving the breakup: How children and parents cope with divorce. New York: Basic Books, 1980.
  9. Ahrons, C.R. The continuing coparental relationship between divorced spouses. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1981) 51:415–28.
  10. Depner, C.E., Cannata, K.V., and Simon, M.B. Building a uniform statistical reporting system: A snapshot of California Family Court Services. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1992) 30:185–206.
  11. Johnston, J.R., and Campbell, L.E.G. Impasses of divorce: The dynamics and resolution of family conflict. New York: Free Press, 1988.
  12. Johnston, J.R. High-conflict and violent parents in family court: Findings on children's adjustment and proposed guidelines for the resolution of custody and visitation disputes. Final report to the Judicial Council of the State of California, Statewide Office of Family Court Services. San Francisco: Judicial Council, 1992.
  13. Gonzalez, R., Krantz, S.E., and Johnston, J.R. Predictors of post-divorce conflict. Paper presented at the Western Psychological Association meetings. San Francisco, April 1984.
  14. Hauser, B.B. Custody in dispute: Legal and psychological profiles of contesting families. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry (1985) 24:575–82.
  15. Kressel, K., Jaffe, N., Tuchman, B., et al. A typology of divorcing couples: Implications for mediation and the divorce process. Family Process (1980) 19:101–16.
  16. Pearson, J., and Thoennes, N. Mediation project—An update. The Colorado Lawyer Family Law Newsletter (1980) 712–21.
  17. Waldron, J.A., Roth, C.P., Farr, P.H., et al. A therapeutic mediation model for child custody dispute resolution. Mediation Quarterly (1984) 3:5-20.
  18. Derogatis, L.R., and Spencer, P.M. The brief symptom inventory (BSI) administration, scoring and procedures manual: I. Baltimore, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1982.
  19. Schaefer, M.P. Children's adjustment in contented mother-custody and contented fathercustody homes. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1989.
  20. Emery, R.E. Interparental conflict and the children of discord and divorce. Psychological Bulletin (1982) 92:310–30.
  21. Grych, J.H., and Fincham, F.D. Marital conflict and children's adjustment: A cognitive-contextual framework. Psychological Bulletin (1990) 108:267–90.
  22. Depner, C.E., Leino, E.V., and Chun, A. Interparental conflict and child adjustment: A decade review and meta-analysis. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1992) 3:323–41.
  23. Cherlin, A.J., Furstenberg, Jr., F.F., Chase-Lansdale, P.O., et al. Longitudinal studies of effects of divorce on children in Great Britain and the United States. Science (1991) 252:1386–89.
  24. Rutter, M. Maternal deprivation 1972-1979: New findings, new concepts, new approaches. Child Development (1979) 50:283–305.
  25. Jaffe, P., Wolfe, D., and Wilson, S. Children of battered women. Vol. 21 of Developmental clinical psychology and psychiatry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1990.
  26. Tschann, J.M., Johnston, J.R., Kline, M., and Wallerstein, J.S. Family process and children's functioning during divorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family (1989) 51:431–44.
  27. Kline, M., Johnston, J.R., and Tschann, J.M. The long shadow of marital conflict: A family process model of children's adjustment postdivorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family (1990) 53:297–309.
  28. Johnston, J.R. Family transitions and children's functioning: The case of parental conflict and divorce. In Family, self and society: Toward a new agenda for family research. P.A. Cowan, D. Field, D.A. Hansen et al., eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993, pp. 197–234.
  29. Brotsky, M., Steinman, S., and Zemmelman, S. Joint custody through mediation: A longitudinal assessment of children. Conciliation Courts Review (1988) 26:53–8.
  30. Steinman, S.B., Zemmelman, S.E., and Knoblauch, T.M. A study of parents who sought joint custody following divorce: Who reaches agreement and sustains joint custody and who returns to court. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry (1985) 24:554–62.
  31. Achenbach, T.M., and Edelbrock, C.S. Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. Burlington, VT: Queen City Printers, 1983.
  32. Johnston, J.R., Kline, M., and Tschann, J. Ongoing postdivorce conflict in families contesting custody: Effects on children of joint custody and frequent access. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1989) 59:576–92.
  33. Hightower, A.D., Work, W.C., Cowen, E.L., et al. The teacher-child rating scale: A brief objective measure of elementary children's school behavior problems and competencies. School Psychology Review (1986) 15:393–409.
  34. Pearson, J., and Thoennes, N. Custody after divorce: Demographic and attitudinal patterns. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (1990) 60:233–49.
  35. Buchanan, C.M., Maccoby, E.E., and Dornbusch, S.M. Caught between parents: Adolescents' experience in divorced homes. Child Development (1991) 62:1008–29.
  36. Kline, M., Tschann, J.M., Johnston, J.R., and Wallerstein, J.S. Children's adjustment in joint and sole physical custody families. Developmental Psychology (1989) 25:430–38.
  37. Emery, R., and Wyer, M. Child custody mediation and litigation: An experimental evaluation of the experience of parents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (1987) 55:179–86.
  38. Koch, M.P., and Lowery, C.R. Evaluation of mediation as an alternative to divorce litigation. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice (1984) 15:109–20.
  39. Pearson, J., and Thoennes, N. Final report of the divorce mediation research project. 90-CW-634. Madison, WI: Association of Family and Conciliation Courts, Research Institute, 1984, pp. l–74.
  40. Sprenkle, D.H., and Storm, C.L. Divorce therapy outcome research: A substantive and methodological review. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy (1983) 9:239–58.
  41. Girdner, L., ed. Mediation and spousal abuse. Special issue of Mediation Quarterly (1990) 18:3–8.
  42. Germane, C., Johnson, M., and Lemon, N. Mandatory custody mediation and joint custody orders in California: The dangers for victims of domestic violence. Berkeley Women's Law Journal (1985) 1:175–200.
  43. Pearson, J., and Thoennes, N. Divorce mediation research results. In Divorce mediation: Theory and practice. J. Folberg and A. Milne, eds. New York: Guilford Press, 1988, pp. 429–52.
  44. Simons, V.A., Grossman, L.S., and Weiner, B.J. A study of families in high conflict custody disputes: Effects of psychiatric evaluation. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (1990) 18:85–97.
  45. Hauser, B.B., and Straus, R.B. Legal and psychological dimensions of joint and sole custody agreements. Paper presented at the 68th Annual Meeting of the American Orthopsychiatric Association. Toronto, March 1991.
  46. Pearson, J., and Anhalt, J. The visitation enforcement program: Impact on child access and child support. Final report. Grant No. 89M-E-021. Denver, CO: Center for Policy Research, 1992. Available from the Center for Policy Research, 1720 Emerson St., Denver, CO 80218.
  47. Milne, A. Custody of children in a divorce process: A family self-determination model. Conciliation Courts Review (1978) 16: 1–16.
  48. Johnston, J.R. Developing preventive interventions for children of severe family conflict and violence: A comparison of three models. Technical report. Corte Madera, CA: Center for the Family in Transition, 1993. Available from the Center for the Family in Transition, 5725 Paradise Dr., Bldg. B, Suite 300, Corte Madera, CA 94925.
  49. Straus, R., and Alda, E. Supervised child access: The evolution of a social service. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1994) 32:230–47.
  50. James, B., and Gibson, C. Supervising visits between parent and child. Family and Conciliation Courts Review (1991) 29:73–84.
  51. See note no. 12, Johnston, for a comprehensive set of guidelines for the disposition of custody and access in domestic violence families.