Skip over navigation

Journal Issue: Special Education for Students with Disabilities Volume 6 Number 1 Spring 1996

Identification and Assessment of Students with Disabilities
Daniel J. Reschly


  1. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 34, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. §300 (1991).
  2. Reschly, D.J. Assessing educational handicaps. In The handbook of forensic psychology. A. Hess and I. Weiner, eds. New York: Wiley, 1987, pp. 155–87.
  3. Hendrick Hudson District Board of Education v. Rowley, 73 L.Ed.2d 690, 102 S.Ct. 3034, 1982.
  4. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: APA, 1994.
  5. Luckasson, R., Coulter, D.L., Polloway, E.A., et al. Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of support. 9th ed. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation, 1992.
  6. Reschly, D.J. Mental retardation: Conceptual foundations, definitional criteria, and diagnostic operations. In Developmental disorders: Diagnostic criteria and clinical assessment. S.R. Hooper, G.W. Hynd, and R.E. Mattison, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1992, pp. 23–67.
  7. Reschly, D.J. Learning characteristics of mildly handicapped students: Implications for classification, placement, and programming. In The handbook of special education: Research and practice. Vol. I. M.C. Wang, M.C. Reynolds, and H. J. Walberg, eds. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1987, pp. 35–58.
  8. Mercer, C.D., King-Sears, P., and Mercer, A.R. Learning disabilities definitions and criteria used by state education departments. Learning Disability Quarterly (1990) 13,2:141–52; Mercer, J. Labeling the mentally retarded. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1973.
  9. Patrick, J., and Reschly, D. Relationship of state educational criteria and demographic variables to school-system prevalence of mental retardation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency (1982) 86,4:351–60.
  10. The federal IDEA statute and regulations continue to use the term "mental retardation," although many professionals, clients, and families have long preferred the term "developmental disability," and state statutes may use terms such as "mental disability" or "significantly limited intellectual capacity."
  11. MacMillan, D. Mental retardation in school and society. 2d ed. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1982.
  12. Roush, W. Arguing over why Johnny can't read. Science (1995) 267:1896–98.
  13. Office of Special Education Programs. Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Sixteenth annual report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1994.
  14. Zigler, E. Familial mental retardation: A continuing dilemma. Science (1967) 155:292–98.
  15. Zigler, E., Balla, D., and Hodapp, R. On the definition and classification of mental retardation. American Journal of Mental Deficiency (1984) 89:215–30.
  16. Grossman, H.J., ed. Classification in mental retardation. Washington DC: American Association on Mental Deficiency, 1983.
  17. Kauffman, J.M., Cullinan, D., and Epstein, M.H. Characteristics of students placed in special programs for the seriously emotionally disturbed. Behavior Disorders (1987) 12:175–84.
  18. MacMillan, D.L. Issues in mild mental retardation. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded (1988) 23:273–84.
  19. Shaywitz, S.E., Escobar, M.D., Shaywitz, B.A., et al. Distribution and temporal stability of dyslexia in an epidemiological sample of 414 children followed longitudinally. New England Journal of Medicine (1992) 326:145–50.
  20. See note no. 8, Mercer, J.
  21. MacMillan, D., Jones, R., and Aloia, G. The mentally retarded label: A theoretical analysis and review of research. American Journal of Mental Deficiency (1974) 79:241–61.
  22. Goodman, J.F. Does retardation mean dumb? Children's perceptions of the nature, cause, and course of mental retardation. Journal of Special Education (1989) 23:313–29.
  23. Jenkins, J.R., and Heinen, A. Students' preferences for service delivery: Pull-out, in-class, or integrated models. Exceptional Children (1989) 55:516–23.
  24. National Association of School Psychologists. Rights Without Labels. Washington, DC: NASP, 1986. Reprinted in School Psychology Review (1989) 18,4.
  25. Epps, S., Ysseldyke, J., and McGue, M. Differentiating LD and non-LD students: "I know one when I see one." Learning Disability Quarterly (1984) 7:89–101.
  26. Gajar, A. Educable mentally retarded, learning disabled, and emotionally disturbed: Similarities and differences. Exceptional Children (1979) 45:470–72.
  27. Shinn, M.R., Ysseldyke, J.E., Deno, S.L., and Tindal, G.A. A comparison of differences between students labeled learning disabled and low achieving on measures of classroom performance. Journal of Learning Disabilities (1986) 19:545–52.
  28. Ysseldyke, J.E., Thurlow, M., Graden, J., et al. Generalizations from five years of research on assessment and decision making: The University of Minnesota Institute. Exceptional Education Quarterly (1983) 4:75–93.
  29. Algozzine, B., Morsink, C.V., and Algozzine, K.M. What's happening in self-contained special education classrooms. Exceptional Children (1988) 55:259–65.
  30. Epps, S., and Tindal, G. The effectiveness of differential programming in serving students with mild handicaps. In Handbook of special education: Research and practice. Vol. I. M.C. Wang, M.C. Reynolds, and H.J. Walberg, eds. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1987, pp. 213–48.
  31. Kavale, K. The effectiveness of special education. In The handbook of school psychology. 2d ed. T.B. Gutkin and C.R. Reynolds, eds. New York: Wiley, 1990, pp. 868–98.
  32. Kavale, K.A., and Glass, G.V. The efficacy of special education interventions and practices: A compendium of meta-analysis findings. Focus on Exceptional Children (1982) 15,4:1–14.
  33. Colarusso, R.P. Diagnostic-prescriptive teaching. In The handbook of special education: Research and practice. Vol. I. M.C. Wang, M.C. Reynolds, and H.J. Walberg, eds. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1987, pp. 155–66.
  34. Reynolds, C.R. Two key concepts in the diagnosis of learning disabilities and the habilitation of learning. Learning Disability Quarterly (1992) 15:2–12.
  35. Arter, J.A., and Jenkins, J.R. Differential diagnosis—prescriptive teaching: A critical appraisal. Review of Educational Research (1979) 49:517–55.
  36. Good, R.H., Vollmer, M., Creek, R.J., et al. Treatment utility of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children: Effects of matching instruction and student processing strength. School Psychology Review (1993) 22:8–26.
  37. Kavale, K.A., and Forness, S.R. Substance over style: Assessing the efficacy of modality testing and teaching. Exceptional Children (1987) 54:228–39.
  38. Teeter, P.A. Neuropsychological approaches to the remediation of educational deficits. In Handbook of clinical child neuropsychology. C.R. Reynolds, and E. Fletcher-Janzen, eds. New York: Plenum Press, 1989, pp. 357–76.
  39. Artiles, A.L., and Trent, S.C. Overrepresentation of minority students in special education: A continuing debate. Journal of Special Education (1994) 27:410–37.
  40. Wagner, M. The Contributions of poverty and ethnic background to the participation of secondary school students in special education. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1995.
  41. Reschly, D.J. IQ and special education: History, current status, and alternatives. Washington, DC: National Research Council, Commission on Social Sciences and Education, Board on Testing and Assessment, 1995.
  42. Paneth, N. The problem of low birth weight. The Future of Children (Spring 1995) 5,1:19–34.
  43. NASP/NASDE/OSEP. Assessment and eligibility in special education: An examination of policy and practice with proposals for change. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education, 1994.
  44. Hewett, F.M., Taylor, G.D., and Artuso, A.A. The Santa Monica Project: Evaluation of an engineered classroom design with emotionally disturbed children. Exceptional Children (1969) 35:523–29.
  45. Reschly, D.J., and Tilly, W.D. The WHY of system reform. Communique (1993) 22,1:1, 4–6.
  46. Shinn, M.R., ed. Curriculum-based measurement: Assessing special children. New York: Guilford Press, 1989.
  47. Tilly, W.D., Grimes, J.P., and Reschly, D.J. Special education system reform: The Iowa story. Communique (1993) 22, insert.
  48. Morrison, G.M. Relationship among academic, social, and career education in programming for handicapped students. In Handbook of special education research and practice. Vol. I. M.C. Wang, M.C. Reynolds, and H.J. Walberg, eds. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1987, pp. 133–54.
  49. Shapiro, E.S., ed. Academic skills problems: Direct assessment and intervention. New York: Guilford Press, 1989.
  50. Shapiro, E.S., and Kratochwill, T.R., eds. Behavioral assessment in schools: Conceptual foundations and practical applications. New York: Guilford Press, 1988.
  51. Hobbs, N. The Futures of Children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1975.