Journal Issue: Children of Immigrant Families Volume 14 Number 2 Summer 2004
1. For example, in one 1990 study of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the high school dropout rate among American-born Vietnamese aged 16 through 19 was lower than the rate among whites: 5% versus 8%; and college entrance rates among the Vietnamese cohort were higher than among whites: 50% versus 38%. See Zhou, M., and Bankston, III, C.L. Straddling two social worlds: The experience of Vietnamese refugee children in the United States. Urban diversity series no. 111. New York, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse for Urban Education, Institute for Urban and Minority Education, 2000, p. 33. Also see Cheng, L., and Yang, P.Q. The "model minority" deconstructed. In Contemporary Asian America: A multidisciplinary reader. M. Zhou and J.V. Gatewood, eds. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2000, pp. 459Ã?482; and Rumbaut, R.G. Vietnamese, Laotian, and Cambodian Americans. In Contemporary Asian America: A multidisciplinary reader. M. Zhou and J.V. Gatewood, eds. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2000, pp. 175-206.
2. For example, see Rumbaut, R.G. The new Californians: Comparative research findings on the educational progress of immigrant children. In California's immigrant children: Theory, research, and implications for educational policy. R.G. Rumbaut and W.A. Cornelius, eds. San Diego, CA: The Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California, San Diego, 1995, pp. 17-69.
3. For example, in 1999, the influential College Board released a report, Reaching the top: A report of the National Task Force on Minority High Achievement, that neglected to examine any disaggregated data for Asian/Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs). As a result, the report neglected to recommend that special efforts be targeted to any APIA group. The report is available online at The Future of Children 133 Growing Up American http://www.collegeboard.com/research/abstract/0,1273,3876,00.html. Spurred to action by this report, in May 2001, the Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus (CAPAC), under the leadership of Congressman Robert Underwood of Guam, collaborated with SEARAC to gather community scholars together for a "Summit on the Status of Pacific Islander and Southeast Asian-Americans in Higher Education." Information from the summit and other related materials are available online at http://www.searac.org/highedsummit.html.
4. Census 2000 data available on the U.S. Census Bureau Web site at http://www.census.gov.
5. See also Rumbaut, R.G. Transformations: The post-immigrant generation in an age of diversity. JSRI research report no. 30. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, The Julian Samora Research Institute, 1999, pp. 6-7. Accessible online at http://www.jsri.msu.edu/RandS/research/irr/rr30.html; Um, K. A dream denied: Educational experiences of Southeast Asian American youthÃIssues and recommendations. An issue paper based on findings from the first national Southeast Asian Youth Summit. Washington, DC: Southeast Asia Resource Action Center, 2003, p. ii. Accessible online at http://www.searac.org/pryd-3_11_03.html; Frisbie, W.P., Cho, Y., and Hummer, R.A. Immigration and the health of Asian and Pacific Islander adults in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology (2001) 153(4):372-380; Taylor, E.H., and Barton, L.S. Southeast Asian refugee English proficiency and education in Texas. Austin, TX: Texas Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Immigration and Refugee Affairs, (no date provided); Texas Office of Immigration and Refugee Affairs. Vietnamese, Laotian, Ethiopian, and former Soviet Union refugees in Texas: Findings from the Texas refugee study. Austin, TX: Texas Department of Health and Human Services, OIRA, (no date provided); and Hobbs, R., ed. Bridging borders in Silicon Valley: Summit on immigrant needs and contributions. San Jose, CA: Santa Clara County Office of Human Relations, Citizenship and Immigrant Services Program, 2000, p. 93.
6. Total U.S. population: 281,421,906. Total number of people who reported Asian and/or Pacific Islander heritage: 11,898,828. See Census 2000 data, available on the U.S. Bureau of Census Web site at http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-16.pdf.
7. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Southeast Asians. In Refugees and immigrants in Massachusetts: An overview of selected communities. Boston, MA: Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Family and Community Health, Office of Refugee and Immigrant Health, 1999.
8. These data were drawn from the R30 Census of California's Department of Education, accessed online at http://www.seacrc.org/pages/demogr.html, and from the California Department of Education Web site at http://www.cde.ca.gov/. See also note 2, Rumbaut, p. 32.
9. See Heubert, J.P. High-stakes testing: Opportunities and risks for students of color, English-language learners, and students with disabilities. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum, Center for Applied Special Technology, 2000. Available online at http://www.cast.org/ncac/index.cfm?i=920.
10. Survivors of the Khmer Rouge regime and people who were imprisoned in reeducation camps (such as recent arrivals from Vietnam under the Resettlement Opportunities for Vietnamese Refugees Program) are particularly likely to suffer from trauma-related illnesses, which are appropriately treated by only a small number of clinicians operating in a few areas. These illnesses, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and head injury, impair their sufferers' abilities to relate intimately with others, take on new life challenges, and learn new skills. See note 5, Um, p. 34.
11. See note 5, Um, pp. 7, 17-19.
12. See note 1, Zhou and Bankston, pp. 66-67.
13. Zhou, M., and Bankston, III, C.L. Growing up American: How Vietnamese children adapt to life in the United States. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998, pp. 73, 107, 222, and 237. See also Olsen, L. An invisible crisis: Educational needs of Asian Pacific American youth. San Francisco, CA: Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Philanthropy, 1997. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Philanthropy (AAPIP) is a national "affinity group" for grant makers who are particularly concerned with the welfare of Asian and Pacific Islander American communities. For more information, see the AAPIP Web site at http://www.aapip.org.
14. See note 5, Um, pp. 6-8.
15. See note 5, Hobbs, p. 100.
16. See also note 5, Rumbaut, 1999, p. 10. In this 1992 and 1995 study in Southern California and South Florida, Rumbaut found further confirmation that Southeast Asian American students in these sites were more likely than most other refugees and immigrants to experience discrimination, and to expect to be discriminated against in the future.
17. Trueba, H.J., Jacobs, L., and Kirton, E. Cultural conflict and adaptation: The case of Hmong children in American society. New York, NY: The Falmer Press, 1990, p. 104.
18. Acknowledging the importance of curricula that address the particular linguistic, cultural, and historical characteristics of student populations, AAPIP recommended that fellow grant makers "Promote research, development, and staff training in the use of multicultural curricula that portray the history and culture of Asian Pacific Americans, and of anti-racism curricula that support direct and honest dialogue among students." See note 13, Olsen, p. 35.
19. Saetern, M.K. Iu Mien in America: Who we are. Oakland, CA: Graphic House Press, 1998, p. 92.
20. See note 17, Trueba, et al., p. 106.
21. See, for example, Kiang, P.N. Pedagogies of life and death: Transforming immigrant/refugee students and Asian American studies. Positions (1997) 5(2):529-555; Kiang, P.N. Writing from the past, writing for the future: Healing effects of Asian American studies in the curriculum. Transformations: A Resource for Curriculum Transformation and Scholarship (1998) 9(2):132-149; and National Association of Student Personnel Administrators. Long-term effects of diversity in the curriculum: Analyzing the impact of Asian American studies in the lives of alumni from an urban commuter university. In Diversity on campus: Reports from the field. Washington, DC: NASPA, 2000, pp. 23-25.
22. Chu, N.V. Re-examining the model minority myth: A look at Southeast Asian youth. McNair Journal (Winter 1997) vol. 5. Available online at http://www-mcnair.berkeley.edu/97Journal/Chu.html. Also see note 2, Rumbaut, pp. 33-34, for figures on bilingual educators in California in 1993.
23. Personal communication with Dr. Seree Weroha, Education Consultant, Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, in April 2002. Dr. Weroha noted that one reason for the shortage of Southeast Asian American teachers is that not enough Southeast Asian American professionals take the initiative to lead and recruit Southeast Asian Americans who may want to become teachers.
24. See, for example, Johnson, T., Boyden, J.E., and Pittz, W.J. Racial profiling and punishment in U.S. public schools: How zero tolerance policies and high stakes testing subvert academic excellence and racial equality. Oakland, CA: Applied Research Center, 2001, p.21. Available online at http://www.arc.org/erase/index.html.
25. See, for example, legislative efforts such as H.R. 333, which would "amend the Higher Education Act of 1965 to authorize grants for institutions of higher education serving Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders." H.R. 333 is available online at http://thomas.loc.gov.